One questionnaire parents participating in IAN Research fill out about their children is the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). The SCQ was created by. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a widely used measure to screen for ASD. To improve the utility of the Join for free. Figures – uploaded by . The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, Bailey, Lord, & Berument , ) is an instrument for screening for autism in individuals over the age of 4.
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Recent studies have used very large samples; included typically developing children, rather than just those with developmental disorders; compared the SCQ Lifetime and Current versions; and increased scrutiny of internal validity. The sensitivity-specificity balance in distinguishing between ASD and other developmental disorders is poor, which has led to development of abbreviated versions of the SCQ; however, sensitivity-specificity balance is better in a more general population.
Children can be reliably diagnosed with ASD by age 2 [ 2 — 7 ], clearing a pathway to early intervention opportunities. Early intervention may not only limit deterioration of skills, but may lead to quesionnaire improvement in functioning, such that children with higher intelligence and functional skills may later lose their ASD diagnosis [ 8 — 10 ].
It must be stressed that a screening tool cannot be used to make a diagnosis; if the child fails on the screening instrument, he or fdee is referred to a specialist to receive a comprehensive clinical evaluation to determine a diagnosis, if any. If the screening instrument fails too many children, the referral system may become overwhelmed with concomitant delays for children in receiving a diagnosis; however, if the screening instrument does not screen positive for the child who truly does have ASD, the child will not be sent for evaluation to receive a diagnosis of ASD and so will not receive intervention services.
The goal of this paper is to critically evaluate the literature on the use of the Social Communication Questionnaire SCQ for children under age 4. The SCQ is a brief, item, parent-report screening measure that focuses queshionnaire items relating to ASD symptomatology likely to be observed by a primary caregiver.
Although the SCQ is a screening tool—and, thus, cannot be used for diagnosis of ASD—it is based on the Autism Diagnostic Interview ADI-R [ 17 ], a semi-structured parent interview conducted by a trained clinician or researcher that can be used for diagnostic evaluation of children with suspected ASD.
There are two different versions of the SCQ. The authors suggest that the applicability of the ADI-R may extend down to a chronological age of 2. Studies incorporated into this review were drawn from keyword-guided online searches on PubMed, Google Scholar, and the International Meeting for Autism Research online archives. In addition, studies must been published or later, corresponding to the year that the SCQ was released.
The tables include the following: Tables also include key psychometric data, which are important for understanding the value of the SCQ in this population.
Analysis of Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) Screening for Children Less Than Age 4
Psychometric communiaction are described in the next section. Sensitivity true positive rate and specificity true negative rate. Area under the receiver operating characteristic ROC curve; plots sensitivity against 1-specificity. Likelihood ratio for positive test results; an indicator for ruling-in ASD. Likelihood ratio for negative test results; an indicator for ruling out ASD.
An indicator that gives equal weight to sensitivity and specificity, and which is often used to establish the optimal cutoff point. ROC curve analysis—including key measures of sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve—is associated with test validity. Generally, validity refers whether the test measures what it was intending to test and provide information about the accuracy of the test. Sensitivity true positive rate: Specificity true negative rate: Different cutoff scores express the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity, which can be represented graphically by a receiver operating characteristic ROC curve, which plots sensitivity the true positive rate on the y -axis against 1-specificity the false positive rate on the x -axis.
A key goal of ROC curve analysis is the select an optimal cutoff; however, there are likely to be different optimal cutoffs dependent on the purpose of the researcher or clinician. Area under the ROC curve: Likelihood ratios LRbelow, have been calculated by the current authors from researcher-reported sensitivity and specificity data. LR provide a statistic about test reliability, that is the degree to which an communicattion tool produces stable and consistent results, that is independent of ASD prevalence in the questionnaife tested.
By contrast, positive predictive value PPV and negative predictive value NPV are socual of reliability that, indeed, are affected by disease prevalence. It gives equal weight to sensitivity and specificity. A value of 0 indicates that the measure has no value [ 31 ]. Five studies [ 2022 — 25 ] included children who had been referred for assessment, while one [ 21 ] included children receiving preschool special education services; thus, children are generally categorized into ASD diagnosis vs.
Samples sizes for these early studies were small, and focused questiknnaire the use of receiver operating characteristic ROC analyses to determine the ability of the SCQ to distinguish between the presence or absence of ASD at the recommended SCQ threshold of 15 and at other cutoff points.
The three current studies — which are the main focus of this paper—Barnard-Brak et al. Used the SCQ Lifetime: Include typically developing children: This broadens the external validity of the SCQ and allows generalizability to populations beyond those with developmental concerns.
Have large sample sizes: Both Barnard-Brak et al. Extensively reviewed internal consistency and validity of the SCQ Lifetime: Parental report of professional diagnosis of ASD has been verified by medical records [ 36 ]. The results of the analyses on the subset data sociial improved, but generally comparable to the score on the full dataset. Studies generally recommended a cutoff below the threshold of 15 for children under age 4.
Most studies advised selecting a cutoff to emphasize sensitivity or specificity depending on need because the balance between sensitivity and specificity was generally poor. For example, a cutoff score that provided high sensitivity would generally have low specificity, resulting in a large false positive rate.
Rather than use the SCQ as a screener, Marvin et al. The researchers differentiated between children with ASD and their generally typically developing siblings although siblings are at higher risk of ASD than the general populationrather than children with non-ASD concerns.
The lower performance for the non-verbal children is likely due to the association between non-verbal status and intellectual disability and, thus, the mental age of the non-verbal children might not be at the 2. Recent studies of the use of the SCQ in younger children have focused on the following: Those interested in using the SCQ in children younger than the recommended age of 4.
The sensitivity-specificity balance is poor in a population where children have a diagnosis, whether ASD or non-ASD; thus, development of an abbreviated version may be useful for high-risk children for differentiating between those with ASD and those with another developmental diagnosis. The sensitivity-specificity balance was better in a general population comparing children with ASD to generally typically developing children.
In addition to showing potential as a screening tool for ASD in children younger than 4. Screening for ASD in young children is complex.
Analysis of Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) Screening for Children Less Than Age 4
Given the strong potential of using the SCQ Lifetime for screening higher-functioning children below age 4. Law declare no conflicts of interest. This article is part of the Topical Collection on Screening.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Current Clmmunication Disorders Reports. Curr Dev Disord Rep. Published online Nov 4.
Marvin1, 2 Daniel J. Marvin1 Paul H. Lipkin1, 2, 3 and J.
The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)
Kiely Law 1, 2, 3. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Recent Findings Recent studies have used very large samples; included typically developing children, rather than just those with developmental disorders; compared the SCQ Lifetime and Current versions; and increased scrutiny of internal validity.
Summary The sensitivity-specificity balance in distinguishing between ASD and other developmental disorders is poor, which has led to development of abbreviated versions of the SCQ; however, sensitivity-specificity balance is better in a more general population.
Literature Selection Studies incorporated into this review were drawn from keyword-guided online searches on PubMed, Google Scholar, and the International Meeting for Autism Research online archives.
Open in a separate window. All three current studies: The 7 items were the following: The 6 items were the following: Social Interaction; Factor 2: Abnormal Language; Factor 4: Stereotyped Behaviorbut found that Factor 1: Social Interaction did not hold in this population. Concluding Remarks Recent studies of the use of the SCQ in younger children have focused on the following: Footnotes This article is part of the Topical Collection on Screening. Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among 4-year-old children in the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network.
J Dev Behav Pediatr. Early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder: J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Matson JL, Horovitz M. Stability of autism spectrum disorders symptoms over time. J Dev Phys Disabil. Follow-up of two-year-olds referred for possible autism. Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Can autism be diagnosed accurately in children under 3 years? Moore V, Goodson S. How well does early diagnosis of autism stand the test of time? Follow-up study of children assessed for autism at age 2 and development of an early diagnostic service.
Can children with autism recover? Residual language deficits in optimal outcome children with a history of autism. J Autism Dev Disord. Predictors of optimal outcome in toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders.