ACTOR SE PREPARA, EL by HIRIART, HUGO and a great selection of related books, art and Traducción de Dagoberto: STANISLAVSKI, Konstantin Konstantin Sergeievich Stanislavski was a seminal Russian theatre practitioner. He was widely recognised as an. Este renovado interés por la formación del actor fue paralelo a lo que estaba de la figura del director como creador, e impulsado directamente por este, el actor y el arte de la en palabras de Salvat: «tomar una situación cualquiera y hacer arte. Konstantin Sergejewitsch Stanislavski, «El trabajo del actor sobre el.
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In the past few decades, theatre and cinema have had a series of innovations that have given the idea that realism and the preapra acting method are outdated. Researchers, critics and artists themselves show a singular distance with that aesthetic. However, realism reappears over and over on the stage sometimes only as a language game on the postdramatic scenewhile some of its procedures persist in acting and directing classes, confused with essential rudiments of training or staging.
Furthermore, it is omnipresent and unquestionable in film acting. Thereby, realism remains in Western modes of representation, which becomes symptomatic because it is not perceived or is completely denied. For these reasons, we will reflect on the influence of those implied ideas in acting. Due kn its nature as an event and exhibition 23acting has an irrefutable political dimension. Thus, any reflection about acting forms confronts us with the problems of the body and representation.
In fact, each acting performance involves collective ideas about subjectivity and the symbolic, and their relationships with the moral, ideological and aesthetic imperatives which struggle for hegemony in any society. In this sense, the realistic acting method constitutes the exponent of a concern common in modern Western theatre for consolidating a pedagogical relationship between stage and spectators.
This idea, for stanislavsku long time longed for, achieved its full expression stansilavski Modern Drama Szondi,a form which incarnates the ideals of a theatre made by and for the bourgeoisie, who desired to watch their debates, conflicts and aspirations reflected on stage.
Thus, the dialogue as prepars closed dialectic crystallized as the ckmo appropriate form of scenic expression for social and political matters. This increased the importance of the rehearsal in the theatrical phenomenon.
However, acting continued to manifest itself as the scenic element most reluctant to subsume itself to transitive representation. In fact, as an event, acting possesses an irreducible opacity 25which plays down any type of previous planning of the scene Thus, experiencing becomes a device that promotes the introjection, by the actor, of the de circumstances emanated from the subtext.
That promotes the subsequent staging, too. In this way, every external sign produced by the actor will have correlation with an experience, which determines the enormous success and extraordinary dissemination xe the system in Western theatre. Contemporaneously, first cinema, called cinema of attractions Gaudreault,emerged as a popular spectacle that had no prestige. Thus, the actors of this cinema were artists of varieties, vaudeville and circus, scenic forms that were far from realism and the modern ideals.
However, shanislavski the second decade of 20th century, cinema was organized around narrative integration and became institutionalized. Since then, film acting was inclined to the attenuation of gestures and the elimination of theatrical remains. Therefore, naturalism became an objective and the realistic acting method, which was already prestigious, began to be applied in cinema, which continues until now. The history of Western theatre could be entirely comk as an attempt to avoid the disruption caused by acting.
In this sense, the development of Western theatre coom more a systematic denial and the various forms that it has adopted over the centuries than an assertion, a fact which is not noticeable in the mere study of dramatic texts. Definitely, the postponement of the study of staging, only legitimized by the appearance of direction, the reduction of the reflection on acting to a simple summary of methodologies and an obstinate absence of analysis of the relations of production in theatre, are a consequence of considering theatre as a discursive phenomenon.
In this context, we consider that the significance of the realistic acting method, which has had an extended dissemination and acceptance since its emergence in the late 19th century, can only be analyzed if we adopt a historical perspective.
This zctor analyzing the relationship between the characteristics of realism and the historical context of its emergence, in order to understand to what extent those postulates respond to the view of a special group of society, to its particular idea about art and theatre and about a previous theatre that it opposed. This allows us to understand that the realistic acting method, generally considered as the essence prepaar basis of acting, conetantin not got constantiin univocal or ahistorical sense.
The propensity toward realism is a constant in Western culture, which takes us to es referent issue. Indeed, already since the Greeks, this matter has appeared in the dichotomy between the transparency toward a referent stanislavsski preexists representation, or the opacity of representation whose result or rest is a referent built by it.
Ultimately, the pursuit of transcendence about what cojo exhibited on the scene is the evidence of a didactic function attributed to theatre, whereby a group assumes the role of tutor. We are interested in pointing out the distribution of the sensible implicit in those ideas, because they define a priori positions, capacities and incompetence linked to them.
Thanks to that distribution, a group proclaims itself as intermediary between reality and the scene, a relationship that will be established according to its own worldview and its own interests, to offer the representation as a final product to another group, called audience.
Now, what particular characteristics does this distribution of the sensible assume in realistic theatre?
In what ways is the referent problem resolved in realism? How is this expressed in an acting method? Finally, how does an ethical imperative translate into an aesthetic program? We must distinguish three facets of realism which are usually perceived as fused. On the one hand, realism is a mode of construction of statements or a mode of representation with particular characteristics.
On the other hand, realism is a sense effect, the production of illusion of prspara or transparency, thanks to which the represented appears as a world where the things themselves are shown as they occur.
Thus, a statement can be perceived as realistic that is, it may have a realistic sense effect even if its constructive elements or the method of acting employed have not been strictly realistic This admits the inverse assertion: We prepzra that the realistic dramaturgy and staging, and the acting method postulated in accordance with them, produce a particular illusion of approximation to the referent.
But this is not the only possible approximation. The illusion of reference in realism is not the result of a set of procedures for capturing reality objectively. Instead, that illusion is the result of concealing the mechanism of the construction of representation. Indeed, hiding the composition work creates the illusion of approach to the referent, because this transforms the perception of a representation into an impression of reality.
This concealment of the composition work produces a rhythmical continuity whose sense effect is the approach to reality. In sctor terms, realism is, produces and depends on the artificial and illusory construction of a continuous fluidity of the representation, without excesses or interruptions.
This apparent fluidity and plainness of representation promotes a sensation of transparency. For that reason, realism is known as a styleless style Nochlin, How does this occur?
First, by erasing any traces of construction of the dramatic plot by the elimination of the subject of the epic form, which Peter Szondi identifies in the Modern Drama. Created during the Renaissance, as an expression prrepara man turned to himself after the collapse of the medieval worldview, Modern Drama is an artistic form where he confirms and looks at himself.
Szondi states that the subjects of drama are projections of the historical subject.
Thus, there is no distance between characters and audience. Therefore, Drama is the expression of the rising bourgeoisie and proclaims itself as the canon around Now, Drama implies realism and its procedures.
Not surprisingly, the peak of Drama coincides with the appearance of realism. Although realism is in continuous discussion, historically it is a movement or style that emerged in the middle of the 19th century, according to the spirit of the time in which science, philosophy, literature and arts are included.
As we stated before, it is not possible to describe realism in absolute terms, but as a reaction to the previous theatre. That is, realism can only be understood as an opposition to both the idealization and the schematic forms of Neoclassicism, and the subjective expressivity of Romanticism. Realism adopted an ethical commitment to the sincerity of representation, which implies the subordination of the aesthetic dimension to the theme, eliminating the superficiality of conventions.
Thus, realism constituted a moral attitude toward the problems of its time, or more precisely, toward a vision of that time according to the interests, objectives and values of the bourgeoisie which was already in its center.
In this sense, in art and literature, realism consisted in a critical analysis of society, through fictions that based their illusion of reference in the representation of contemporary conflicts with a plausible background in temporal, spatial, historical or imaginary terms.
In theatre, this means the elaboration of a story apparently developed by characters, that is, a story not produced by an external subject. For that, the removal of any traces of enunciation is necessary.
Consequently, theatrical dialogue, as an expression of the debate cono ideas the basis of the bourgeois conception of the public sphereis the privileged form of Drama In this way, the dialogue as a personal encounter Pellettieri, is established as a closed dialectic, an absolute entity.
In Drama, the author is absent; he does not intervene because he has given the right to speak to the characters. Therefore, characters acquire great importance. On the one hand, the character occupies the central place as the basis of verisimilitude that is, the transparency of representation. So, the character acquires features as a fictional biographical entity, endowed with a past and present life, with physical and psychological traits, emanating from the dramatic text.
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Unlike tragedy or comedy, the dramatic character is leveled with man or, more exactly, with its audience, the preoara. The character, who acts and feels according to the circumstances an illusionism by which Drama does not present itself as the secondary exhibition of something originalis the agent of the author and the spectator, who watches an image of himself reflected on stage.
This parallel world is governed by a strict spatial coherence and causal motivation, by which present becomes past only if it generates a transformation. Thus, the realistic drama is based on a series of conventions that are concealed by the logic of cause stajislavski effect.
This kind of dramatic texts requires and depends on a staging which affirms the verisimilitude of representation. That explains the appearance of the director in the late 19th century. This new role is perpara longer restricted to indicating entrances and exits of the scene, but he becomes the guarantor of the transparency of representation.
This is carried out through a strategic design of staging, following Michel De Certeau prwpara De Certeau names logic of strategic action the calculation of the relationship of force which is possible when a subject of power isolates and circumscribes its own place.
That is an order according to which the elements stabislavski distributed in coexistence, excluding the possibility of two elements being in the same place. It provides a stable structure which makes possible a position of retreat, distance and caution.
Thus, this structure can give itself a global and totaling project. In this way, staging will be a previous design which guides the scenic work ckmo a unifiying direction, so that all elements must subordinate themselves to this. The director assumes the staging as a composition in which all elements objects, persons, languages are related in a balanced ensemble This theatre needed a new type of acting.
Without an actor capable of eliminating the traces of the construction of representation, the illusion of reference to which playwright, director and audience aspire would fail. Szondi states that acting must affirm the absolute character of Drama. The relation between actor and character cannot be perceived. Instead, actor and character must fuse. Definitely, the romantic actor so-called romantic divawhich unn his glorious era in the late 19th century, was not this kind of actor.
It was not easy to find a type of acting which uh to those demands. The nature of acting as an event makes its subjection to the logic of strategic zctor improbable. In theatre, actor and spectator are inmersed in a context with a constant latent risk, which cannot be neutralized by previous planification.
Therefore, this opacity of acting caused pepara kinds of censorship and reprimand throughout Western theatre history. All attempts to erase the traces of construction in acting must try to reduce or control the nature of acting as an event, that is, intervene in the situational aspects of the acting phenomenon.