Available in: Paperback. Through a life of passion and struggle, Malcolm X became one of the most influential figures of the 20th Century. La autobiografía de Malcom X, Alex Haley y Malcolm X. 12 likes. Book. Buy Autobiografia di Malcolm X by Alex Haley, Malcolm X, R. Giammanco (ISBN: Ojalá las editoriales traduzcan al español los demás libros de Malcolm x.
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After the leader was killed, Haley wrote the book’s epilogue. Rather than rewriting earlier chapters as a polemic against the Nation which Malcolm X had rejected, Haley persuaded him to favor a style of “suspense and drama”.
Autobiografia de malcolm x malcolm x e alex haley | Luanda Dalmazo –
When the Autobiography was published, The New York Autobiogravia reviewer described it as a “brilliant, painful, important book”. Inhistorian John William Ward wrote that it would become a classic American autobiography.
Beginning with his mother’s pregnancy, the book describes Malcolm’s mlacolm in Michiganthe death of his father under questionable circumstances, and his mother’s deteriorating mental health that resulted in her commitment to a psychiatric hospital.
Dde led to his arrest and subsequent eight- to ten-year prison sentence, of which he served six-and-a-half years — It documents his disillusionment with and departure from the Nation of Islam in Marchhis pilgrimage to Meccawhich catalyzed his conversion to orthodox Sunni Islamand his travels in Africa.
Stone compare the narrative to the Icarus myth. In addition to functioning as a spiritual conversion narrative, The Autobiography of Malcolm X also reflects generic elements from other distinctly American literary forms, from the Puritan conversion narrative of Jonathan Edwards and the secular self-analyses of Benjamin Franklin, to the African American slave narratives. Considering this, the editors of the Norton Anthology of African American Literature assert that, “Malcolm’s Autobiography takes autobiogeafia to interrogate the very models through which his persona achieves gradual self-understanding American writer and literary critic Harold Bloom writes, “When Baley approached Malcolm with the idea, Malcolm gave him a startled look Malcolm, could you tell me something about your mother?
And he said, ‘I remember the kind of dresses she used to wear. They were old and faded and gray. And he said, ‘I remember how she was always bent over the stove, trying to stretch what little we had. And he walked that floor until just about daybreak. Though Haley is ostensibly a ghostwriter on the Autobiographymodern scholars tend to treat him as an essential and core collaborator who acted as an invisible figure in the composition of the work.
Haley’s contribution to kalcolm work is notable, and several scholars discuss how it should be characterized. The Art of Autobiography”, writer and professor John Edgar Wideman examines in detail the narrative landscapes found in biography.
Wideman suggests that as a writer, Haley was attempting to satisfy “multiple allegiances”: You are serving many autobiografai, and inevitably you are compromised.
The man speaks and you listen but you do not take notes, the first compromise and perhaps betrayal. You may attempt through various stylistic conventions and devices to reconstitute for the reader your experience of hearing face to face the man’s words. The sound of the man’s narration may be represented by vocabulary, syntax, alec, graphic devices of various sorts—quotation marks, punctuation, line breaks, visual patterning of white space and black space, markers that encode print analogs to speech—vernacular interjections, parentheses, ellipses, asterisks, footnotes, italics, dashes In the body of the AutobiographyWideman writes, Haley’s authorial agency is seemingly absent: In “Two Create One: Though a writer’s skill and imagination have combined words and voice into a more or less convincing and coherent narrative, the actual writer [Haley] has no large fund of memories to draw upon: Thus where material comes from, and what has been done to it are separable and of equal significance in collaborations.
In Stone’s estimation, supported by Wideman, the source of autobiographical material and the efforts made to shape them into a workable narrative are distinct, and of equal value in a critical assessment of the collaboration that produced the Autobiography. Haley “took pains to show how Malcolm dominated their hlaey and tried to control the aoex of the book”, writes Rampersad.
I was appalled when they were soon returned, red-inked in autobioografia places where he had told of his almost father-and-son relationship with Elijah Muhammad. I was upset auyobiografia something. Forget what I wanted changed, let what you se had stand. Several times I would covertly watch him aled and wince as he read, but he never again asked for any change in what he had originally said.
Haley influenced the narrative’s direction and tone while remaining faithful to his subject’s syntax and diction. Marable writes that Haley worked “hundreds of sentences into paragraphs”, and organized them into fe areas”. As the work progressed, however, according to Haley, Malcolm yielded more and more to the authority of his ghostwriter, partly because Haley never let Malcolm read the manuscript unless he was present to defend it, partly because in his last months Malcolm had less and less opportunity to reflect on the text of his life because he was so busy living it, and partly because Malcolm had eventually resigned himself ds letting Haley’s ideas about effective storytelling take precedence over his own desire to denounce straightaway those whom he had once revered.
Andrews suggests that Haley’s role expanded because the book’s subject became less available to micro-manage the manuscript, and “Malcolm had eventually resigned himself” to allowing “Haley’s ideas about effective storytelling” to shape the narrative.
Marable studied the Autobiography manuscript “raw materials” archived by Haley’s biographer, Anne Romaine, and described aitobiografia critical element of the collaboration, Malcoml writing tactic to capture the voice of his subject accurately, a disjoint system of data mining that included notes on scrap paper, in-depth interviews, and long “free style” discussions.
Marable writes, “Malcolm also had a habit of scribbling notes to himself as he spoke. Wideman and Rampersad agree with Marable’s description of Haley’s book-writing halet.
Dyson suggests that “profound personal, intellectual, and ideological changes The Library of Congress held the answers. This collection includes the papers of Doubleday’s then-executive editor, Kenneth McCormick, who had worked closely with Haley for several years as the Autobiography had been constructed.
As in the Romaine papers, I found more evidence of Haley’s sometimes-weekly private commentary with McCormick about the laborious process of composing the book. They also revealed how several attorneys retained by Doubleday closely monitored and vetted entire sections of the controversial text indemanding numerous name changes, the reworking and deletion of blocks of paragraphs, and so forth.
Indeed, the autobiography is as much a testament to Haley’s ingenuity in shaping the manuscript as it is a record of Malcolm’s attempt to tell his story.
Rampersad suggests that Haley understood autobiographies as “almost fiction”. The Life of a Man Who Changed Black Americaand makes the general point that the writing of the Autobiography is part of the narrative of blackness in the 20th century and consequently should “not be held utterly beyond inquiry”. But autobiografix is no Malcolm untouched by doubt or fiction. Malcolm’s Malcolm is in haey a fabrication; the ‘truth’ about him is impossible to know.
Its second Malcolm—the El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz finale—is a mask with no distinct ideology, it is not particularly Islamic, not particularly nationalist, not particularly humanist. Like any well crafted icon or story, the mask is evidence of its subject’s humanity, of Malcolm’s strong human spirit.
But both masks hide as much character as they show. The first mask served hxley nationalism Malcolm had rejected before the book was finished; the second is mostly empty and available. And [James Hal] Cone asserts that he became an internationalist with a humanist bent. Marable, in “Rediscovering Malcolm’s Life: A Historian’s Adventures in Living History”, critically analyzes the collaboration that produced the Autobiography. Marable argues autobiographical “memoirs” are “inherently biased”, representing the subject as he would appear with certain facts privileged, others deliberately omitted.
Autobiographical narratives self-censor, reorder event chronology, and alter names. Considering the literary impact of Malcolm X’s Autobiographywe may note the tremendous influence of the book, as well as its subject generally, on the development of the Black Arts Movement. Indeed, malcokm was the day after Malcolm’s assassination that the poet and playwright, Amiri Barakaestablished the Black Arts Repertory Theater, which would serve to catalyze the aesthetic progression of the movement.
She [hooks] is not alone.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X – Wikipedia
Some will do more than mention it. D will say that Altered their vision, their outlook, their insight. At the end of his tenure as the first African-American U.
Grove Press then published the book later that year. The book has been published in more than 45 editions and in many languages, including Arabic, German, Haleey, Indonesian.
In some editions, it appears at the beginning of the book. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. He scratched red through ‘we kids.
My life in particular never has stayed fixed in one position for very long. You have seen how throughout my life, I have often known unexpected drastic changes. X, Malcolm; Haley, Alex The New York Times: Retrieved Mallcolm 25, The Art of Autobiography”, in Woodpp.
Autobiografia De Malcolm X ( Alex Haley)
Eyes on the Prize: Archived from the original on April 23, Retrieved March 7, A Life of Reinvention ‘ “.
The New York Times. Retrieved June 1, Retrieved February 11, Retrieved April 8, Prison Writing in 20th-Century America. Harvard University Press Blog. Retrieved 2 November Emphasis and second ellipsis in original.
Revolution in the Air: Retrieved June 4, Retrieved July 11, The Making and Remaking of Malcolm X”. Retrieved April 27, Retrieved June 2, Archived from the original on January 14, The Facts, the Fictions, the Film”. Retrieved May 31,